These bright blue exclosures protect plants against the destructive force of deer.


Schuylkill Center for Environmental Education, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Metal and plastic

Two enclosures, each 40 feet long x 10 feet wide x 8 feet tall

For Edible Landscapes, curated by Amy Lipton

Deer are innocent accomplices in the destruction of forest habitat, eating their way to a bleak future of compromised and inedible landscapes. Hungry deer nip tree seedlings, leaving the forest without any native replacement species. Kept Out consists of a pair of deer exclosures: fenced areas to keep deer out. One exclosure was built near the artist’s studio in a woodland in Pennsylvania’s Ridge and Valley region and the other at the woodland edge of the Schuylkill Center for Environmental Education in the Piedmont ecosystem. Both sites face a great deal of deer pressure.

Deer enclosures, fenced areas to keep the deer from eating the regenerating young tree and shrub layer.

The interior spaces fill with young saplings and shrubs and, with time, obliterate the blue haze of fencing.

Though small, these plots provide a striking visual alternative to the typical methods of controlling deer impact.